Metasploit’s post-exploitation module to extracts Mikrotik Winbox credentials

Metasploit’s post gather modules are useful to gathering additional information from a host after a Metasploit session has opened.

This module is a Post-Exploitation Windows Gather to perform credentials extraction against the Mikrotik Winbox when the “Keep Password” option is selected in Winbox.

I sent a Pull Request to Rapid7 wich was accepted and this module is now part of metasploit. So, now I’m a metasploit contributor 😉


  • Get a session on Windows host (meterpreter, shell and powershell sessions are supported)
  • Run: run post/windows/gather/credentials/winbox_settings
  • If any users in the system has a Keep Password enabled in Winbox, the credentials will be printed out

How to unlock the bootloader on Huawei P20-PRO CLT-L09 without code

This is a note on how to unlock the bootloader on a Huawei P20-PRO, in my case CLT-L09, equipped with HiSilicon Kirin 970 CPU without having a valid unlock code and without disassembling it.

But before, this is the short and sad story

A long time ago, the unlock code, necessary to do whatever the fuck you want with your device, was official given by Huawei if you request it. As of 25th July 2018, Huawei has closed this official channel.

Since you paid for your device, you have every right to tell Huawei to fuck off.

Unofficial methods

For Kirin 620, 650, 655, 658, 659, 925, 935, 950 and 960 there is the Open Source tool PotatoNV, but for the Kirin 710, 710F, 970 and 980 it doesn’t work.

Currently, the only working solution is to use DC Phoenix & HCU Client which costs 19$ for 3 days access.

If in doubt, see this app.

  1. DC Phoenix sets the phone in software “testpoint” mode.
  2. With device in “software testpoint” HCU Client can read and toggle the state of “Bootloader lock” and “FRP lock”.
  3. After unlock, DC Phoenix can remove the “testpoint” mode.
DC Phoenix
HCU Client

How to unpack UnityWebData1.0 in Unity WebGL games

UnityWebData1.0 is a standard of data file used by WebGL games.

It is loaded along with the game binary and contains some resources like shapes, 3D objects, sounds, and so on.

Besides these resources, it may contains the Il2Cpp metadata that is useful to simplify the reverse engineer of the WebAsm code.

The IL2CPP (Intermediate Language To C++) is an alternative to the Mono backend. The IL2CPP backend converts MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) code (for example, C# code in scripts) into C++ code, then uses the C++ code to create a native binary file.

This type of compilation, in which Unity compiles code specifically for a target platform when it builds the native binary, is called ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation. The Mono backend compiles code at runtime, with a technique called just-in-time compilation (JIT).

Popular disunity tool doesn’t handle this type of file, and binwalk or file(1) aren’t helpful this time, so we need another way to realize it.

To see if we are looking at a UnityWebData1.0 data file, simply check the header, which contains the string “UnityWebData1.0.”

UnityWebData1.0 file header
As you can see “file” is not very useful this time

We can use a UnityPack python library via this small wrapper. It will create a folder with some files, named “extracted”. This is the usage:

Usage: ./ <UnityWebData1.0 file>
Unpack UnityWebData1.0 file with “”
Content of “extracted” directory

That’s all, happy reversing!

Approaching the Reverse Engineering of a RFID/NFC Vending Machine

The affected vendor did not answer to my responsible disclosure request, so I’m here to disclose this “hack” without revealing the name of the vendor itself.

The target machine uses an insecure NFC Card, MIFARE Classic 1k, that has been affected by multiple vulnerabilities so should not be used in important application.
Furthermore, the user’s credit was stored on the card enabling different attack scenarios, from double spending to potential data tamper storing an arbitrary credit.

Useful notes from MIFARE Classic 1K datasheet:

EEPROM: 1 kB is organized in 16 sectors of 4 blocks. One block contains 16 bytes.
The last block of each sector is called “trailer”, which contains two secret keys and programmable access conditions for each block in this sector.

  • Manufacturer block: This is the first data block (block 0) of the first sector (sector 0). It contains the IC manufacturer data. This block is read-only.
  • Data blocks: All sectors contain 3 blocks of 16 bytes for storing data (Sector 0 contains only two data blocks and the read-only manufacturer block).
    The data blocks can be configured by the access conditions bits as:
    • Read/Write blocks: fully arbitrary data, in arbitrary format
    • Value blocks: fixed data format which permits native error detection and correction and a backup management.
      A value block can only be generated through a write operation in value block format:
      • Value: Signifies a signed 4-byte value. The lowest significant byte of a value is stored in the lowest address byte. Negative values are stored in standard 2´s complement format. For reasons of data integrity and security, a value is stored three times, twice non-inverted and once inverted.
      • Adr: Signifies a 1-byte address, which can be used to save the storage address of a block, when implementing a powerful backup management. The address byte is stored four times, twice inverted and non-inverted.
Value block example for value 0x0012D687

Let’s start hacking:

In this post I did not show you how to crack the MIFARE Classic Keys needed to read/write the card, ’cause someone else has already disclosed it some time ago, so google is your friend.
At last, please, use this post to skill yourself about the fascinating world of reverse engineering, and not for stealing stuffs.

In order to start the analysis I need some dump to compare.
The requirements of this task are nfc-mfclassic tool included in libnfc, a NFC hardware interface like ACR122U, and a binary compare (aka binarydiff) tool like dhex.


  • Dump 0: Virgin card (not included in the screenshot below ’cause all data bytes were 0x00, except for the sector 0 that has UID and manufacturer information. These sector is read only, so these bytes are the same across dumps)
  • Dump 1: Card charged with single 0.10€ coin (Note that vending machine displays the balance with 3 decimals, 0.100€)
  • Dump 2: 0.00€ after spending the entire balance with 4 transactions of 0.025€ each
  • Dump 3: 0.10€ recharged with one single coin
Dump 1 compared to Dump 2, yellow bytes differ
Dump 2 compared Dump 3, yellow bytes differ

Blurred bytes are the MIFARE keys A and B, except for the 32 bytes at 0xE0 offset of which I don’t know their purpose.
The 4 bytes between the keys are Access Condition and denotes which key must be used for read and write operation (A or B key) and the block type (“read/write block” or “value block”).

The tool mfdread is useful to decode the Access Condition bytes rapidly, and, in general, to display MIFARE Classic data divided by sectors and blocks:

Dump 1 with mfdread parser

Early analysis:

Note: from now on I will refer to the offsets with a [square parenthesis] and a value with no parenthesis.

  • Blocks 8, 9, 10, 12 and 13 can be used also as “value block”
  • Except for bytes between offsets [0x80] and [0x9F], only few bytes differ between dumps
  • Some data are redundant, for example [0x60 … 0x63] has the same values of [0xA0 … 0xA3]
  • Values at [0xC0], [0xD0], [0xC8], [0xD8] differ by 4 between 1st and 2nd dump (eg: 0xFE – 0xFA = 0x4) and differ by 1 between 2nd dump and 3rd dump (eg: 0xFA – 0xF9 = 0x1)
  • Values at [0xC4], [0xD4] differ by 4 between 1st and 2nd dump (eg: 0x05 – 0x01 = 0x4) and differ by 1 between 2nd and 3rd dump (eg: 0x06 – 0x05 = 0x1)
    • 4 is the number of spent transaction made the first time, and 1 is the number of recharge transaction made the second time
  • Sum between yellow squared and red squared offsets has 0xFF value. In other words red squared is inverse (XOR with 0xFF) of yellow squared. For example:
    • 0xFE ⊕ 0xFF = 0x01
    • 0xFF ⊕ 0xFF = 0x00
    • 0x7F ⊕ 0xFF = 0x80
  • Values at [0x60 … 0x63] are a UNIX TIMESTAMP in little endian notation:
    • Dump 1: 0x4F9E2C27 -> 0x272C9E4F = 657235535 = 10/29/1990 @ 9:25pm
    • Dump 2: 0x71B62C27 -> 0x272CB671 = 657241713 = 10/29/1990 @ 11:08pm
    • Dump 3: 0x18592D27 -> 0x272D5918 = 657283352 = 10/30/1990 @ 10:42am
      • Ok, we are not in the 90ies, but the time difference between transactions is correct, maybe the vending machine doesn’t have an UPS 🙂

Early findings:

  • Timestamp of the last transaction was stored as 32 bit integer at MIFARE block 6 and redundant at at MIFARE block 10
  • Only MIFARE blocks 12 and 13 has “Value block” format, and they are used to store the counter of remain transaction in 32 bit format.
    This counter starts from 0x7FFFFFFF (2.147.483.647) and is decreased at each transaction
  • Blocks 1, 4, and 14 contains some data that are fixed between dumps
  • Blocks 8 and 9 changes entirely at each transaction

The credit:

If there is credit stored on the card, it was encoded at blocks 8 and 9, and the number of bytes involved between small credit difference (for example between 0.00€ and 0.10€) could indicate that some cryptographic function is involved.

At this time, a double spending attack could confirm if the credit is really stored on the card.
So, after spending all the credit, I have rewritten a previous dump on the card and I went to test it at the vending machine. The card was fully functional with the previous credit stored in that dump. Now, I’m certain that the credit is encoded (and probably encrypted) in the blocks 8 and 9.


Even if the encoding format of the credit is still unknown, a double spending attack was possible.

This means that the vendor’s effort to obfuscate the credit is nullified 🙁

Adding some unique token on the card that are invalidated into back-end after each transaction, means that this token needs to be shared between all the vending machines of the vendor, but, if we add internet connection to the vending machine, there is no longer reason to store the credit on the card.

So, after all, the only remediation action that makes sense is: DO NOT STORE THE CREDIT ON THE CARD! And, more generally: DO NOT TRUST THE CLIENT!

Road to arbitrary credit:

Spending 1€ infinite times isn’t the scope of that hack. The only real scope is FUN!
To continue this analysis I need to collect a large number of dumps to advance some hypothesis so, when I have other material I will make another post.

An example of easier card:

Some vendor has more easier approach by using the MIFARE “Value block” to store the credit without obfuscation or encryption.

Credit stored on the MIFARE Value Block

The above screenshot made with “MIFARE Classic Tool” on Android smartphone, represents a Value Block used to store the credit:

0x00000CE4 = 3300 is the value in Euro thousandths (3.30€).

This particular vendor do not use key A and the Key B is a default key 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, so the attacker doesn’t need to crack anything.

Reverse engineering and cracking of a Vending Machine is always funny 🙂